Monday, October 31, 2011
Sunday, October 30, 2011
Saturday, October 29, 2011
Friday, October 28, 2011
Thursday, October 27, 2011
Current and Voltage are two different but related aspects of electricity. Voltage is the electrical potential difference between two points while current is the flow of electric charge across a certain element.
Wednesday, October 26, 2011
Tuesday, October 25, 2011
Monday, October 24, 2011
Yogurt is a dairy product of Turkish origin,produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. It is the fermentation of milk sugar called lactose into lactic acid that gives yogurt in gel like texture and characteristic tang.
Curd is also a dairy product obtained by curdling milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion.The increased acidity causes the milk proteins tangle into solid masses or curds.
Sunday, October 23, 2011
Saturday, October 22, 2011
Friday, October 21, 2011
1. Viruses are the smallest and simplest life form known. They are 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria.
2. The biggest difference between viruses and bacteria is that viruses must have a living host - like a plant or animal - to multiply, while most bacteria can grow on non-living surfaces.
3. Bacteria are intercellular organisms(i.e. they live in-between cells); whereas viruses are intracellular organisms (they infiltrate the host cell and live inside the cell). They change the host cell's genetic material from its normal function to producing the virus itself.
4. There are some useful bacteria but all viruses are harmful.
5. Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not viruses.
6. An example of a disease caused by bacteria is strep throat and an example of an affliction caused by a virus is the flu.
Thursday, October 20, 2011
Karst is the geologic term for landscapes formed mainly by the dissolving of limestone or dolomite bedrock. In the United States, karst underlies parts of Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, northern Alabama, Texas, and most of Florida. Such areas are marked by sinking streams, subterranean drainage, large springs, caves—and, of course, sinkholes.
Wednesday, October 19, 2011
Tuesday, October 18, 2011
His name was James Bond - his examination paper reference was 007.
Monday, October 17, 2011
Sunday, October 16, 2011
On Aloha Airlines Flight 243, flight attendant C.B. Lansing was sucked out of an airliner when the bulkhead tore off in mid flight. On April 28, 1988, a Boeing 737-297 serving the flight suffered extensive damage after an explosive decompression in flight, but was able to land safely at Kahului Airport, on Maui. The only fatality was the chief flight attendant, Clarabelle "C.B." Lansing, who was standing at seat row 5 collecting drink cups from passengers. She was sucked through a hole in the side of the airplane. Another 65 passengers and crew were injured. The safe landing of the aircraft with such a major loss of integrity was unprecedented and remains unsurpassed.
Saturday, October 15, 2011
Controversial dictator Gaddafi owns a very sophisticated car.
The car, claimed to be the safest in the world, is called Saroukh el-Jamahiriya (Libyan rocket). It has an aerodynamic design as in James Bond movies, and is owned by Gaddafi since 1999. The car is equipped with electronic defense systems. It also features a bumper that is designed to resist hard impact.
Friday, October 14, 2011
Fortunately, the driver stopped, and took the mother to the local vet, not knowing she was dead, - where it was discovered she had these twins in her pouch.
Thursday, October 13, 2011
Wednesday, October 12, 2011
After phosphate was extracted from the rocks, the gypsum-based waste product was dumped as a slurry. As layer after layer of the stuff dried, it formed cracks, like those that appear in dried mud. Water later made its way through the cracks and carried away subsurface material, setting the stage for a sinkhole.
Tuesday, October 11, 2011
Monday, October 10, 2011
* The cruise liner, Queen Elizabeth 2, moves only six inches for each gallon of diesel that it burns.
* The world's oldest surviving boat is a simple 10 feet long dugout dated to 7400 BC. It was discovered in Pesse Holland in the Netherlands.
* Rock drawings from the Red Sea site of Wadi Hammamat, dated to around 4000 BC show that Egyptian boats were made from papyrus and reeds.
* The world's earliest known plank-built ship, made from cedar and sycamore wood and dated to 2600 BC, was discovered next to the Great Pyramid in 1952.
* The Egyptians created the first organized navy in 2300 BC.
* Oar-powered ships were developed by the Sumerians in 3500 BC.
* Sails were first used by the Phoenicians around 2000 BC.
Sunday, October 9, 2011
The gardens were created by members of the Cornish Tremayne family for the period from the mid 18th century to the early 20th century and they still are part of the family property Heligan. The gardens were abandoned after the First World War, and restored only in 1990. The recovery process is featured in several popular television programs and books.
Saturday, October 8, 2011
By Monica Bhide, Natural Solutions
If you’re among the estimated 65 percent of Americans who have trouble sleeping at least a few nights a week, you’re probably tired of hearing about all the possible culprits for your bedtime woes, from too much caffeine and late-night TV to not enough exercise or unwind time in the evenings.
While all of these factors certainly play a role in your quality of shut-eye, there’s one sleep saboteur that often goes unrecognized even though it can have a profound effect on how soundly you snooze–your diet.
In fact, food and sleep actually affect one another: If you don’t eat right, you lose sleep; and when you’re sleep-deprived, your eating habits suffer, says Sally Kravich, a holistic nutritionist and author of Vibrant Living: Creating Radiant Health and Longevity (SPK Publications, 2003). “It’s the ultimate catch-22,” she says. “A lack of sleep causes leptin, an appetite-regulating hormone, to crash, which causes you to eat more,” she says. “Not only does eating more eventually lead to weight gain and an increased risk of obesity–both of which can affect how well you sleep–but the foods you’re most likely to reach for when you’re tired will keep you up at night.” So what’s an insomniac to do?
For starters, get clear about which foods promote good shut-eye, and which have the potential to keep you up at night, and adjust your diet accordingly.
Whole grains. Fiber-rich foods, such as brown rice and quinoa, do more than keep you full; they contain large amounts of tryptophan, an essential amino acid that increases the levels of serotonin (a feel-good neurotransmitter that calms the nervous system) and melatonin (a sleep-inducing hormone secreted in response to darkness) in the brain. What’s more, whole grains slowly nourish the body throughout the night after you digest them, says Lauren Taylor, CTN, a naturopath in Boulder, Colorado. That makes them an especially good choice for anyone who wakes up hungry during the night. Whole-grain carbohydrates also have a soothing effect. “Certain grains, like oats, act as natural relaxants and help calm the nervous system,” says Taylor.
Legumes. The high levels of B vitamins in legumes, such as black-eyed peas and lentils, also help calm your nervous system, says Kravich. Adds Taylor: “Legumes can be a great choice for an evening meal because they often replace animal protein, which can cause sleep problems.” But legumes are not for everyone, warns Taylor. They can be hard for some to digest. To know if you fall into this category, pay close attention to how you feel after you eat them. If the legumes satisfy your hunger without making you feel overly full or gassy, they could be a good addition to your sleep-inducing arsenal. Have an upset stomach or feel sluggish after a meal of legumes? Skip them altogether or eat them only in moderation.
Herbal teas. Tempted to have a glass of vino to unwind at night? Kravich recommends reaching for a cup of tea instead, especially blends with chamomile, lavender, and mint. “Drinking caffeine-free tea, particularly gentle herbal varieties, relaxes the body, calms digestion, and soothes the stomach,” says Kravich. Taylor agrees, but also says that the environment in which we eat potentially relaxing foods can have a profound effect on our nervous system. “That calming chamomile tea isn’t necessarily going to be so calming if you drink it while you’re on the computer paying your bills at 10 o’clock at night,” says Taylor. Instead, take your tea to a cozy spot where you can relax, smell the tea, and fully enjoy drinking it. “Unwinding in the evening–emptying out–that’s what’s important,” says Taylor. “It’s a way of clearing your nervous system. If you haven’t let go of the day’s activities, where is all that energy going to go? If it remains pent up inside of you, it’s certainly going to affect your ability to sleep.”
Fruit. Especially high in sleep-inducing tryptophan, bananas, mangoes, and dates are also great substitutes for higher-calorie desserts. “It’s all about changing your habits,” says Kravich. “Instead of cutting out dessert completely, replace cake and cookies–which can keep you up at night because of their high sugar content–with fruits that will satisfy your sweet tooth and help promote sleep. While fruits do contain sugar, it’s natural–not processed–and fruit also comes packed with fiber.” Another benefit from fruits: their high antioxidant content. “Think of nighttime as clean-up time for the body,” says Taylor. “If you go into the evening having just eaten foods that are cleansing and detoxifying, you’re helping that clean-up cycle. Vegetables and fruit are the most detoxifying foods you can eat.”
Soups and stews. Adding sleep-inducing foods to your diet will certainly help you get your beauty rest, but you should also pay attention to how you prepare them. “Cooking sleep-inducing foods at low temperatures for long periods of time is ideal,” says Taylor. “Soups and stews–particularly those filled with fiber-rich veggies and legumes–and low-fat casseroles are much more calming and relaxing than seared meats and hot, spicy foods because when you cook something for a long time, the cooking process acts almost like our own digestive system,” says Taylor. Long cooking times break down the starches and sugars in foods, so your body doesn’t have to work very hard to access their nutrients.
Next: Five foods to avoid for a good night’s sleep
Fatty, high-protein foods. We all know how important it is for good heart health to ease up on saturated animal fats, but doing so can also help the state of your adrenal glands–important not only for good sleep but also for your overall health. Red meat contains high levels of the amino acid tyrosine, which causes the adrenal glands to pump cortisol through your body. This hormone is part of the fight-or-flight reaction that prepares us to face or run away from danger–and certainly puts us in a heightened state that’s hardly conducive to falling and staying asleep. “Under normal circumstances, your adrenal activity is at its highest when you wake up and then descends throughout the day so it’s at its lowest ebb before you go to sleep,” says Taylor. “To promote good sleep, you need to support this adrenal rhythm with the foods you eat.” And for most that means turning the typical American diet upside down. Because high-protein foods stimulate the body, eat them in the morning and at midday, suggests Taylor. For dinner, steer clear of meats and other high-protein foods that will spike your adrenal glands and opt for vegetables and plant-based sources of protein instead.
Caffeine. While you may think that morning cup of joe or two won’t interfere with your ability to wind down later in the day, think again. Caffeine is a powerful stimulant that affects the central nervous system. Although most doctors say it takes between four and seven cups of regular coffee a day to hinder sleep, caffeine–like red meat–revs the body up. “Caffeine can overstimulate the adrenals, which actually compounds fatigue as it wears off,” says Kravich. If you must have your morning cup, eat something nutritious with it and add milk or soy milk to dull the negative effects of the caffeine.
High-sugar, empty-calorie sweets. “Think of cakes and cookies as the other end of the spectrum from whole grains,” says Taylor. “Sweets give you quick energy followed by a crash,” she says. “Because the energy you get from sweets isn’t long and sustained, odds are you’ll wake up because you’re hungry.” Instead of typical desserts, opt for fruit or even some healthy fats and whole grains, such as a quarter of an avocado spread on whole grain toast. “Healthy fats are satisfying, and they calm the nervous system,” says Taylor.
Cold foods. Even during the hot summer months when you might be craving cold foods, such as salads, smoothies, and ice cream, do keep in mind that they’re not necessarily the best for promoting sleep, says Taylor. “When you eat cold foods, your body has to work hard to bring the food’s temperature up to your body temp,” she says. “If the food has been cooked, your body doesn’t have to spend as much energy breaking down the food, which is ideal for evening meals when the goal is to help your body unwind and work less.” Instead of a cold salad, for example, steam veggies and eat them at room temperature with a good olive oil drizzled on top.
Monica Bhide is a Dunn Loring, Virginia based food writer whose work has appeared in The New York Times, The Washington Post, and Food & Wine. Her book, Modern Spice: Inspired Indian Flavors for the Contemporary Kitchen, was released this month by Simon & Schuster.
Friday, October 7, 2011
Anything that increases the flow of water into subsurface soil can speed up the formation of sinkholes. In many cities, utility infrastructure such as sewer lines and fiber optic cables are buried in troughs filled with loose material, which can wash away over time. In some cases, a stretch of road can essentially become a concrete bridge over mostly empty space.
Thursday, October 6, 2011
TIPS ON PUMPING PETROL
I don't know what you guys are paying for petrol.... I am paying up to £1.35 to £1.50 per litre. My line of work is in petroleum for about 31 years now, so here are some tricks to get more of your money's worth for every Litre:
Here at the Shell Pipeline where I work , we deliver about 4 million litres in a 24-hour period .. One day is diesel the next day is jet fuel, and petrol, regular and premium grades. We have 34-storage tanks here with a total capacity of 16,800,000 Litres.
Only buy or fill up your car or truck in the early morning when the ground temperature is still cold. Remember that all service stations have their storage tanks buried below ground. The colder the ground the more dense the petrol, when it gets warmer petrol expands, so buying in the afternoon or in the evening....your litre is not exactly a litre. In the petroleum business, the specific gravity and the temperature of the petrol, diesel and jet fuel, ethanol and other petroleum products plays an important role.
A 1-degree rise in temperature is a big deal for this business. But the service stations do not have temperature compensation at the pumps.
When you're filling up do not squeeze the trigger of the nozzle to a fast mode If you look you will see that the trigger has three (3) stages: low, middle, and high. You should be pumping on low mode, thereby minimizing the vapours that are created while you are pumping. All hoses at the pump have a vapour return. If you are pumping on the fast rate, some of the liquid that goes to your tank becomes vapour. Those vapours are being sucked up and back into the underground storage tank so you're getting less worth for your money.
One of the most important tips is to fill up when your Petrol tank is HALF FULL. The reason for this is the more Petrol you have in your tank the less air occupying its empty space. petrol evaporates faster than you can imagine. petrol storage tanks have an internal floating roof. This roof serves as zero clearance between the Petrol and the atmosphere, so it minimizes the evaporation. Unlike service stations, here where I work, every truck that we load is temperature compensated so that every litre is actually the exact amount.
Another reminder, if there is a petrol truck pumping into the storage tanks when you stop to buy Petrol, DO NOT fill up; most likely the petrol is being stirred up as the Petrol is being delivered, and you might pick up some of the dirt that normally settles on the bottom.
Wednesday, October 5, 2011
Rob Howes and three other lifeguards were on a training swim about 100 metres offshore at Ocean Beach, near Whangarei, when the dolphins raced in and herded the group together.
“They started to herd us up, they pushed all four of us together by doing tight circles around us,” Mr Howe said.
When he tried to drift away from the group, two of the bigger dolphins herded him back.
He then saw why. A three metre great white shark was cruising toward the group about two metres below the surface.
“I just recoiled. It was only about two metres away from me, the water was crystal clear and it was as clear as the nose on my face,” he said, adding he then realised the dolphins had moved in to protect the swimmers.
The group were surrounded by the dolphins for 40 minutes before they were able to reach the shore.
Another lifeguard, Matt Fleet, was patrolling nearby in a rescue boat when he saw the dolphins’ unusual behaviour.
When he dived out of the boat to join the group he also saw the great white.
Fleet said he was keen to get out of the water after the sighting, but didn’t panic.
“I just kept looking around to see where it was.”
Auckland University marine mammal research scientist Doctor Rochelle Constantine said dolphins were normally vigilant in the presence of sharks.
Tuesday, October 4, 2011
The implant was tested on three patients with retinitis pigmentosa, an inherited degenerative eye disease in which the eye’s light receptor cells gradually stop functioning and die off.
Researchers developed a tiny, three-by-three millimetre microchip that contains 1,500 pixels designed to pick up light. The idea is that when an image hits the chip, it is converted into electrical pulses that stimulate healthy cells in the retina. These cells send signals to the brain, where the image is reconstructed.
The researchers implanted the device underneath the retina to directly replace the patients’ damaged retinal light receptors. They then had each patient wear a battery on a necklace to power the chip.
Seven to nine days after the surgery, the researchers then tested the patients’ vision.
Among the three patients in the study, two were able to make out shapes and objects. The third patient, who had been blind for several years, responded so well, he could identify objects placed on a table in front of him, such as a knife and fork, and walk around a room without the use of a white cane.
He could even read large letters as complete words and differentiate between seven shades of grey, the researchers report in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
A spokesperson for Retinal Implant AG, the company that is developing the device, said the trial results were a “proof of concept.” The company now plans further trials to test the device in as many as 50 patients.
Those studies should be completed in two to three years. If all goes well, the device could be on the market in about five years’ time.
Researchers at Oxford University in England, including Dr. Robert McLaren, will be joining the upcoming studies.
“In the field of ophthalmology, making a blind person see again is pretty much as good as it gets,” McLaren said.
The implant is being developed for retinitis pigmentosa, which is diagnosed in 3,000 Canadians every year. But the technique could be suitable for a range of conditions that affect rod and cone cells, the cells that detect light and convert it into electrical signals through the optic nerve.
Those conditions include age-related macular degeneration, the leading cause of blindness in older people, which affects about a million Canadians.
Jonathan Abro of the Fighting Blindness Society in England is among the 25,000 Britons who are losing their eyesight to retinitis pigmentosa.
“People who’ve lost all or most of their vision are able to distinguish shapes and are learning to see something again,” Abro said. “That’s very exciting.”
The implant wouldn’t work, though, for other eye diseases that affect other parts of the eye, such as the optic nerve, for example.
Monday, October 3, 2011
Sunday, October 2, 2011
Saturday, October 1, 2011
• In the first year Coca-Cola creator John Pemberton sold an average of just nine glasses a day. The company now sells 1.4 billion beverage servings every day.
• John Pemberton died in 1888 without realising the success of the beverage he had created.
• Asa Griggs Candler, an Atlanta businessman, bought up the rights to the business between 1888 and 1891 for a total of $2,300. By 1895, the drink was in demand nationwide and Candler had built syrup plants in Chicago, Dallas and Los Angeles.
• The men who served Coca-Cola at soda fountains were called Soda Jerks because of the jerking motion they made preparing a glass of the fizzy drink. They traditionally wore a white hat and a white coat or apron.
• Marathon cyclists were the first athletes to endorse Coca-Cola. World champion and Georgia-native Bobby Walthour appeared in a 1909 newspaper advertisement that now hangs at the company's World of Coca-Cola in Atlanta.
• Despite Candler's successes, he didn't fully realise the potential of bottled Coca-Cola that people could enjoy anywhere and in 1899, two lawyers, Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, secured exclusive rights from Candler to bottle and sell the beverage – for the sum of only $1.
• Coca-Cola's first bottling plant in Asia opened in the Philippines in 1912. Coca-Cola's first bottling plant in Europe opened in France in 1919.
• The company, concerned by 'copycat drinks' focused its advertising on the authenticity of Coca-Cola. It decided to create a distinctive bottle shape to assure people they were actually getting a real Coca-Cola. In 1916, the contour bottle, which remains the signature shape of Coca-Cola today, was chosen for its attractive appearance, original design and the fact that, even in the dark, you could identify the genuine article.
• The Coca-Cola six-pack carton was introduced in 1923, an innovation at the time.
• The character Sprite Boy was introduced in 1942 – decades before the Sprite drink. Sprite Boy helped tell people it was OK to use the name "Coke" to refer to Coca-Cola, something the company had previously resisted.
• It took Coca-Cola 70 years to expand into new flavours: Fanta, originally developed in the 1940s, was introduced in the 1950s; Sprite followed in 1961, with TAB in 1963 and Fresca in 1966. In 1960, The Coca-Cola Company acquired The Minute Maid Company, adding an entirely new line of business – juices. The company now has an astounding portfolio of 500 brands and ’3,300 beverages’.
• Coca-Cola advertising came into its own with the, now famous, 1971 commericial featuring young people from around the world gathered on a hilltop singing "I'd like to buy the world a Coke".
• Diet Coke was introduced in the 1980s – the "era of legwarmers, headbands and the fitness craze" according to Coca-Cola's website.
• Coke was guilty of "the worst marketing blunder ever" in 1985 when it released "new Coke", changing the recipe for the first time in 99 years. In taste tests people had said they loved the new flavour, but when it was released to the market place there was an outcry from customers and Coke was forced into U-turn, bringing back the original flavour as Coca-Cola classic.
• The Coca-Cola Polar Bear was introduced in 1993 as part of the "Always Coca-Cola" campaign.
• Coca-Cola is the only grocery product to have had sales of over £1bn in the UK.
• Coca-Cola has spawned a number of myths, including that it was originally green (the bottle was green but the drink has always been brown); that teeth, steaks, coins and other items will dissolve if left in a glass of Coca-Cola overnight (they won't) and that traffic officers have used the drink to clean stains off roads after traffic accidents (there are no recorded instances).